Tectonics benefited to a large extent from these projects. The plate, tectonics theory, describes the movement of seven large plates and a larger number of smaller plates of the earth’s lithosphere over the course of the last three and a half billion years. The immense cost of these expensive undertakings was justified by the need for future mineral and energy resources and the need to develop technologies for their exploitation. Additionally, the ability to forecast volcanic and seismic hazards was seen as a secondary objective in the 1960s, several prominent research organizations, such as the national academy of sciences and the ministry of geology of the ussr, initiated exploratory programs that use deep drilling to study the internals of The earth in the soviet union, the interdepartmental scientific council for the study of the earth’s interior and super deep drilling was established in 1962, bringing together distinguished scientists and experts from various ministries and departments. The aim of the program was to develop a model of the earth’s crust and upper mantle, as well as new methods for forecasting mineral deposits. It developed a fundamentally new technical approach to the study of the deep structure of the earth’s crust and upper mantle based on a combination of seismic depth, sensing deep drilling data and other geophysical and geochemical methods. These studies resulted in technologies that advanced both super deep drilling and geological logging in boreholes over 10 kilometers, deep, the technology necessary to drill to these depths developed rapidly over the course of the 19th century.

When salt was an essential commodity for preserving food, drilling for highly sought after salt often yielded an unwanted byproduct with a pungent smell oil. It wasn’t until the mid 19th century that businessman sought to profit from oil when it was realized that it could be utilized. As a lubricant and aluminum, and even as medicine, the rising demand for deeper welds brought about the coupling of the steam engine with an ancient method of drilling known as cable tool drilling, this mechanized process could now produce deeper wells far more efficiently than by digging. These early cable tool, drills consisted of bull wheels attached to hemp rope which were repeatedly hoisted and dropped. Each drop would transmit force through a series of heavy iron drilling columns known as strings driving. A variety of bits deep into the borehole frequent stops, were needed in order to remove dirt and chipped rock, as well as to bail out water and to remove oil. The repetitive, lift and drop action made. These stops necessary for the removal of debris. However, this obstacle would finally be solved when rotary drills began to replace cable tool drills in the early 20th century, rotary drills utilized a hollow drill, stem enabling broken rock debris to be circulated out of the bore hole along with mud. As the rotating drill bit cut, deeper rotary drills were utilized by the united states in the early 1960s when the national science foundation initiated project mohol near guadalupe island in the pacific ocean.

The project’s goal was to drill through the earth’s crust, to retrieve samples from the boundary between the earth’s crust and the mantle known as the mojo, riverage, discontinuity or moho. At the time project mohol was seen as a geological complement to the space race planned as a multi hole three phase project. It would ultimately achieve a drill depth of 183 meters under the pacific sea floor at a depth of 3.6 kilometers. Ultimately, the project collapsed under bureaucratic turmoil having never advanced past phase one despite project muhol’s failure in achieving its intended purpose. It did show that deep ocean drilling was a viable means of obtaining geological samples driven by the competitive spirit of the cold war. The soviet union initiated its own drilling project 250 kilometers north of the arctic circle on the barren rock of the cola peninsula in the murmanska region, armed with research conducted throughout the 1960s in 1970, the euromash 4e a drilling machine, the height of a 27 story building, Began driving a well into the 35 kilometer thick baltic continental shelf, now known as the cola super deep borehole. The target depth was set at 15, 000 meters and in 1979 it had surpassed a 9583 meter vertical depth record held by the bertha rogers hole. A failed oil, exploratory hole, drilled in washta county oklahoma. In 1974.. By 1984, the soviets had reached a depth of over 12 000 meters. However, a 5 000 meter section of the drill string would twist off forcing that section to be abandoned.

Drilling would later restart from 7000 meters. Finally, in 1989, after grinding through crystalline rock for more than half of its journey, the drill bit reached the final depth of 12 262 meters, the deepest artificial point on earth, though this fell short of the projected 1990 goal of 13 500 meters. Drilling efforts continued despite technical challenges, however. In 1992, the target of 15 000 meters was eventually deemed impossible after the temperatures at the hull’s bottom previously expected to reach. Only 100 degrees celsius was measured at over 180 degrees celsius. Furthermore, the porosity and density of rock at this depth, coupled with the heat, created a plastic characteristic to the material being drilled hindering the process. Ultimately, the dissolution of the soviet union, led to the abandonment of the borehole in 1995. engineers began dismantling the equipment at the site in 2008, with russia announcing that the borehole would be destroyed. There were actually a number of different holes drilled at cola, each of them branching away from a shallower central shaft, the deepest of these boreholes labeled sg3 and known as the super hole measured just 23 centimeters in diameter. The super hole penetrated roughly one third of the way through the outer crust to the mantle, while its vertical depth has maintained this record in 2008. The kola super deep borehole was surpassed in length only by the slant drilled, al shaheen oil well in qatar, which extended 12 289 meters, though, with a horizontal reach of 10 902 meters.

The less challenging demands of this well allowed it to be complete. In only 36 days, the cola borehole was drilled by means of a turbo drill method with continuous court. In this process, the 215 millimeter diameter bit was rotated by a downhill turbine that was powered by the hydraulic pressure of ground level, mud pumps, the drill bit on turbo drills, spins much faster than a conventional motor drill, though with less torque. However, this increased speed makes straighter holes and can drill faster and easier through tougher ground material. Instead of steel, pipe lightweight, aluminum alloy pipes were used in the process. The bore hole was so deep that replacing a worn drill bit, which required fully pulling the drill string out of the weld bore and then running it back in or making a round trip took up to 18 hours. Special instrumentation was also developed to control and record drilling operations and data, a downhill instrument consisting of a generator, a pulsator and a downhill measuring unit that measures the navigation and geophysical properties were fitted to the drill. The pulsator converts the measured data into pressure pulses that propagate through the fluid barrel in the drilling tool and are received by pressure sensors at the surface. At the surface, the signal received by pressure sensors is sent to the receiving device where it’s amplified filtered and decoded. For control and recording use, the downhill instrument is powered by the generator which uses the movement of flushing fluid as a power source.

The kola super deep borehole had exposed over 1.4 billion years of geological history reaching two and a half to 2.7 billion year old, archaean rock at its bottom. During the archaean eon, the earth’s crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents and the beginnings of life on earth. Rock samples taken from the borehole exposed cycles of crust, building that brought igneous rock into the crust from the mantle below that would break down into sedimentary levels by glaciation and weathering and then reconsolidation back to crystalline rock once again. Under the heat and pressure of the next intrusion of igneous rock additionally, one of the primary objectives of the cola well was to penetrate through the upper layer of granite into the underlying basaltic. Rock basalts are not typically found at the surface, and the presumed basaltic basement is not exposed anywhere on the continent. An abrupt increase in the velocity of seismic waves that have been observed at mid crustal depths around the world is believed to have built the boundary between the surface and the basaltic basement at the kola peninsula. This shift in velocity occurs at 9000 meters deep and the cola borehole was the first to cross that boundary. Soviet researchers also found chemical traces of water at the bottom of the hole, since it was impossible for surface water to make its way. This deep, it was theorized that the water resulted from stray atoms of hydrogen and oxygen that were forced out of the rocks by pressure and then chemically combined to form water.

Even more astonishing was the discovery of a subterrarian layer of marine deposits, almost 7 000 meters. Beneath the surface that were dated at 2 billion years old and contained the fossil traces of life from 24 different species of plankton at the time, it was some of the oldest signs of life that have ever been discovered on the more sensational end of the spectrum Stories began to appear on various tabloid newspapers and websites, suggesting that the russians had actually stopped drilling, because the borehole had broken into a huge underground chamber, from which frightening screams could be heard that they had accidentally drilled into hell, leaving them no choice but to abandon The project and seal the hole to hide this discovery, similar projects have taken place since the drilling of the kola super deep borehole. One such notable example was the german continental deep drilling program, which was carried out between 1987 and 1995, reaching a depth of over 9000 meters and using one of the largest derricks in the world. This project led to the founding of the international continental scientific drilling program. In 1996., from this, the drilling project – san andreas fault, observatory at depth or sofad, was formed in 2002 located near parkville, california. The intent of this project was to collect geological data around the san andreas fault that could be used to predict and analyze future earthquakes. It consists of a 2200 meter pilot hole in addition to a 3200 meter main hole and has helped to shed light on the geochemical and mechanical properties that exist around the fault zone.

The drilling project on the cola peninsula was a milestone in the development of super deep drilling technology, as well as in the study of the deep structures and composition of the continental crust and as oil and gas exploration and development extend further to deeper reservoirs. Consistent breakthroughs in new types of rigs, drilling processes and methods, slurries and even cementing techniques used in bit. Construction may one day finally offer a path through the earth’s crust. Oh hey you stuck around to the end that’s good. Are you a fan of new mine? Do you enjoy these videos? Well, what better way to show your support by helping me conduct a little experiment.